12.Pahela Baishakh(পহেলা বৈশাখ)
11. Independence Day(স্বাধীনতা দিবস)
(a)Which day are our independence day and our biggest state festival? (b)How is the day celebrated?(c) How does the day begin?(d)What is the history of the day?(d)Who takes part in observing the day? (e) How does the country look then?26 March, our Independence Day, is the biggest state festival. The is celebrated every year in the country with great enthusiasm and fervuor. It is a national holiday. All offices, educational institutions, shops, and factories remain closed on this day. The day begins with 31 gunshots. Early in the morning the President and the Prime Minister on behalf of the nation place floral wreaths at the National Mausoleum at Savar. Then diplomats, Political parties, social and cultural organizations, and freedom fighters pay homage to the martyrs. People from all walks of life also come there with rallies and processions. There are several cultural programs throughout the day highlighting the heroic, struggle, and sacrifice in 1971.The country also witnesses a smartly dressed parade of defense forces, border guards, police, Ansar, and the VDP (Village Defense Party) at the National Parade Groundnear the National Parliament. In Bangabandhu Stadium. school children, scouts, and girl guides take part in various displays to entertain thousands of spectators. The educational institutions also organize their programs. Sports meets and tournaments arealso organized on the day including the exciting boat race in the river Buriganga.In theevening, all major public buildings are illuminated with colorful lights. Bangla Academy, Bangladesh Shilpakala Academy, and other socio-cultural organizations hold cultural functions. Similar functions are also arranged in other places in the country.word meaning: state festival (n. phrase)- রাষ্ট্রীয় উৎসব; fervour (n)- আগ্রহ; remain (v)- থাকা; gunshot (n)-বন্দুকের গুলি; floral (adj.)- পুষ্প সম্পর্কীয়; wreath (n)- মালা; Mausoleum (n)- স্মৃতিসৌধ; homage (n)- সম্মান; procession (n)- মিছিল; witness (v)- প্রত্যক্ষ করা; display (v)- প্রদর্শন করা; entertain (v)- আনন্দ দেওয়া; spectator (n)- দর্শক; organize (v)- আয়ােজন করা; exciting (adj.)-উত্তেজনাকর; illuminate (v)- আলােকিত করা।
10. The Statue of Liberty
(a) where is the statue of liberty situated?
(b) What does it symbolize?
(c) What is the measure of the statue?
(d) How was it built?
(e) What is the significance of it?
The Statue of Liberty originally is called Liberty Enlightening the world. It is a statue situated on Liberty Island, formerly Bedloc’s Island, in the harbor of New York. “The statue
Symbolizes Liberty in the form of a woman wearing flowing robes and a spiked crown. She holds a torch aloft in her right hand and carries in her left hand a book inscribed July 4, 1776″. A broken chain symbolizes the overthrow of tyranny. It lies at her feet. The statue was designed by the French sculptor Frederic Bartholdi and was given by France to the United States to commemorate the centennial of US independence in 1876. France raised funds by
popular subscription to pay for. the statue: US donors financed the pedestal and installation of the monument. President Grover Cleveland dedicated the work on October
28, 1886. The statue, the Island, and nearby Ellis Island were declared a national monument in 1924. The statue is formed of copper sheets riveted to an iron framework. It
is one of the largest statues in the world. It measures 93.5 m (306 ft 8in) from the bottom of the pedestal to the tip of the torch. The figure itself is 46.4 m (152 ft 2 in) high; the right arm is 12.81m (42 ft) long; the hand is 5.03 m (16 ft 5 in) long: and the head, which is reachable by staircase or emergency lift, measures 8.5m (28ft) from neck to diadem and 3.05m (10ft) from ear to ear. The statue weighs 254 tonnes(250 tons). Originally it was conceived as a gesture of international friendship. The statue has become a global symbol of freedom. marking the arrival of millions of immigrants to the United States.
Word meaning: originally (adv.)- মুলত, আসলে; situated (adj.)- অবস্থিত; harbour (n)- পােতাশ্রয়; symbolise (v)-প্রতীক হিসেবে অর্থ প্রকাশ করা; liberty (n)- স্বাধীনতা; robe (n)- ঢিলে-ঢালা পােশাক; spike (n)- পেরেক; loft (adv.)- উপরের দিকে; inscribe (v)- উপরে লেখা; overthrow (v)- ফেলে দেওয়া; tyranny
(n)- অত্যাচার; sculptor (n)- ভাস্কর; centennial (n)- শতবার্ষিকী; subscription (n)- চাদা; measure (n)- পরিমাপ; staircase (n)- সিড়ি; immigrant (n)- অভিবাসী।
9.The World Mother Language Day
(বিশ্ব মাতৃভাষা দিবস)
(a)What does the holy 9uran say about mother tongue?
(b) Why is mother tongue important?
(c) W nat iS the historical background of the day?
(d) What was the declaration of UNESCO regarding the day?
(e) Why was the declaration made?
Mother tongue is a divine gift. From the holy Quran, we come to know that the most merciful Almighty has bestowed a mother tongue upon every caste, creed, and color Mother tongue is, so important that the people of a country express their idea, thoughts, feelings emotions, etc. Clearly through the mother tongue. But it is an irony of fate that the then rulers of Pakistan tried to impose Urdu their as mother tongue upon us instead of Bangla. But the people of our country raised their voice against this unlawful decision. Some of the heroic sons came forward and sacrificed their glorious life for the cause of our mother tongue on the 21st February 1952. Since then this day is called the Shahed Dibash. Every year remember this day with solemnity and pay them profound tribute. Now it is a great pleasure for us that this day has got international recognition in 1999. From now onwards this day will be observed as “The World Mother Language Day”. So it is a matter of great glory and prestige for us.
Word meaning: tongue (n)- জিহ্বা; devine (adj.)- স্বর্গীয়; bestow (v)-প্রদান করা; caste(n)- জাতি; colour (n) বর্ণ; express (v)- প্রকাশ করা; irony (n)- পরিহাস; impose (v)- অর্পণ করা; instead (adj.)- পরিবর্তে; solemnity (n)- মৌনতা; profound (adj.)- গভীর; pleasure (n)- আনন্দ; recognition (n)- স্বীকৃতি।
8. Mother’s Day(মা দিবস)
(a) What is Mother’s day
(b) Where was the first Mother’s day announced as a formal
(c) How is the day observed?
(d) When is the day observed?
(e) What is the significance of the day?
Mother’s Day is a celebration honoring mothers and motherhood, maternal bonds, and the influence of mothers in society. It is celebrated on various days in many parts of the world most commonly in March or May. The celebration of Mother’s Day began in the United States in the early 20th century. In most countries, Mother’s Day is a new concept copied from western civilization. Bangladeshi’s are celebrating mother’s day for the last few years. In
Bangladesh, Mother s Day is celebrated on the second Sunday of May. People with his/her mother on that day. They also give his/her mom shares cakes, flowers
greeting cards, mobile phones, sweets, ice-creams, and gift mugs, etc. as “Mother’ s Day gifts. They try to remain very close to their mothers. In observance of the day, discussion
programs are organized by government and non-governmental organizations. Reception programs, cultural programs are organized to mark the day in the Capital city. Television channels air special programs and newspapers publish special features and columns
mark the day. Greeting cards, flowers, and gifts featuring the mother’s specialty to the child- are in high demand at the shops and markets
7. May Day(মে দিবস)
(a) What is May Day?
(b) How and why is it observed?
(c) What is the background of it?
(d) How do the workers enjoy the privileges today?
(e) What is the significance of the day?
May Day is an international holiday for working people. 1st May is International Workers Day. It commemorates the historic struggle of working people throughout the world. It is recognized in all the countries of the world. As a result of the sacrifice of the martyred workers in 1 886, today workers enjoy all the privileges. Today they get a minimum wage. They have job security, safety laws and eight-hour working time, etc. On May 3, 1886, police fired into a crowd of strikers at the McCormick Harvest Machine Company, Chicago. They killed at least one striker and five or six others were seriously wounded and left an undetermined number of workers injured. From the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, people in factories had to work very long shifts, lasting up to fourteen or even more hours a
day. In the 1880s a new movement calling for an eight-hour day inspired both Labour Unions and unorganized workers. Mayday has been a symbol for ers all over the
world. On this day they renew their vow to fight against oppression and for human rights. It is the day that inspires the workers to be united to realize their demands. On the whole, May Day is the day of international unity of the working class. This day reminds the
Workers to stand up against exploitation and to gain better working conditions, better pay, and better lives.
Word meaning: international (adj.)- আন্তর্জাতিক; commemorate (v)- উদযাপনের মাধ্যমে শুরু করা; struggle (n)- সংগ্রাম; throughout (prep.)- ব্যাপিয়া; recognize (v)- চিহ্নিত করা; sacrifice v]-উৎসর্গ করা; martyr (n)- শহীদ; privileges (n)- সুযােগ-সুবিধা; minimum (adj)- সর্বনিম্ন striker (n)- আন্দোলনকারী; wound (v)-আহত হওয়া; undetermined (adj)- হেয় বিবেচনা করা; injure (v)-আহত হওয়:inspire (v)- উৎসাহ দেওয়া; unorganized (adj)- অপ্রাতিষ্ঠানিক; symbol (n)- প্রতীক; oppression in-নির্যাতন; realize (v)- বুঝতে পারা; remind (v) স্মরণ করিয়ে দেওয়া; exploitation (n) শােষণ ।
6. Leisure Activities / Pastime
(a )What is a pastime?
(b) What is the importance of pastime?
(c) Is pastime a source of income?
(d) Does it harm our society?
(e) How do people enjoy pastimes?
Leisure plays a very significant role in the life of a man. During leisure, a man does not generally do any income-generating work. But leisure does never mean idleness. Leisure suggests a period when a man is not bound to do any scheduled job. In a leisure period, a man
can do some interesting things. Some people enjoy hearing music. Some other people enjoy gardening or reading books. Leisure is very stimulating for creativity, A man can easily flourish his creativity by doing some interesting things in his leisure time. Leisure provides a man with ample scope to have the refreshment of mind and achieve sanity, It gives a man enthusiasm for further work. In many developed countries leisure activities are given special importance. In Germany, there is a German Leisure Association, In Bangladesh, the rural people enjoy gossiping during their leisure time. But in the busy cities, people pass their leisure by watching television. However, leisures a part and parcel of our daily life. So it should be used properly.
word meaning: Leisure (n)-অবসর; during (prep.)- একটা সময় ব্যাপি; generate (v)-উৎপাদন করা; suggest (v)- পরামর্শ দেওয়া, উৎসাহ দেওয়া; schedule (n)- কর্মসূচী; creativity (n)- সৃজনশীলতা; flourish(v)- প্রকাশ করা; provide (v)- প্রদান করা; ample (adj.)- প্রশান্ত; refreshment (n)- সতেজতা; sanity (n)-
সুস্থতা, পরিপাটি; enthusiasm (n)- গভীর আগ্রহ; part and parcel (phr.)- অবিচ্ছেদ অংশ; properly ( adv.)-সঠিকভাবে।
5. Pastimes in Urban and Rural Areas
(শহুরে এবং গ্রামীণ অঞ্চলে সময় ব্যয়)
(a)Why are Pastimes necessary?
(b) What types of Pastimes are there in villages?
(c)What types of pastimes are in towns or cities?
(d) Where are more facilities for pastimes in the villages or the towns?
(e) How do games and sports play a role in this regard?
Pastimes are the spices of life as they remove monotony and fatigue of life. Pastimes Vary from person to person and urban to rural life. The urban people are exposed to all modern cities. Besides, their life is too much mechanical. Hence, they try to go out of the din and bustle of urban life. They usually go to the park, visit zoos and amusement parks
with their children. Besides, watching T.V. hiking, bird watching, camping, etc. has been very popular with the urban people. But the rural people are deprived of modern amenities. Hence, they enjoy gossip in their leisure. It is noteworthy that the facilities of dish antenna have reached many remote villages of Bangladesh. As a result, people are now enjoying TV watching. Besides, Jatra, jargon, Sharingan, snake charming, magic shows, etc. Are still popular in rural areas. Village people also enjoy our native games, for example, Kabadi, football, Ha-du-du, etc. Besides, very often they raise a storm on the cup of tea in the tea stall about the political condition of the country. Thus, it is found that pastimes of the urban people are different from those of the rural people.
Word meaning: spice (n)-মসলা; remove (v)-দূর করা; monotony (n)-একঘেয়েমি; fatigue (n)-ক্লান্তি;vary (v)-ভিন্ন হওয়া বা আলাদা হওয়া; urban (adj)- শহুরে; rural (adj)- গ্রাম্য; deprive (v)- বঞ্চিত করা; leisure (n)- অবসর; noteworthy. (adj.)-উল্লেখযােগ্য; remote (adj.)- প্রত্যন্ত; snake charming- সাপ
খেলা; native (adj.)- দেশী
4. Changing trends of Pastimes
(বিনোদন সময় প্রবণতা পরিবর্তন)
(a)How do pastimes change in the modern age?
(b)What types of pastimes are there in the present age?
(c) What types of pastimes do people per at this age?
(d) How do people enjoy the present pastimes?
Time passes on and the taste of the people changes inevitably. Pastimes have been a part of our daily life. It stimulates man’s faculty of work and accelerates his vigour and energy. But change is the fashion of the day. In every sphere of life, change is obviously found. It is mostly because of the development of science and technology, way of life, availability of modern amenities. In the past snake charming puppet show, Jatra, jarigan, Sharingan, Kobi gan were very popular. But now these have lost their appeal. People are no longer interested in them. Now television and satellite channels have taken the place of radio. Even television is losing its appeal because now young people are becoming more and more interested in Computer games, Facebook, browsing, chatting, and video games. Internet connection through mobile operators has taken the whole world in the grip of our young generation. Every mobile set has become a magic box or Aladin’s lamp which brings all sorts of amusing culture and cultural traits in hand. As a result, people are no more interested to spend time in age-old pastimes. Once Origami was a popular pastime. But now the robot has preoccupied the brain, to Our young, generation. Thus, it is widely found that significant changes are bringing about a revolution in our present day’s pastimes.
Word meaning: inevitably (adv)- অনিবার্যভাবে; stimulate (v)- উদ্দীপনা জাগানাে; accelerate (v)- বৃদ্ধি করা; vigor (n)- উদ্যম; sphere (n)- ক্ষেত্র, স্তর; obviously (adv)- স্পষ্টভাবে; amenities (n)- আমােদ-প্রমােদ; সুযােগ-সুবিধা; appeal (n)- আবেদন connection (n)- সংযােগ; grip (n)- মুষ্ঠি; generation (n)- প্রজন্ম; sorts (n)- প্রকার; traits (n)- ধরণ; significant (adj.)– গুরুত্বপূর্ণ; revolution (n)- বিপ্লব, আবর্তন।
3. Outdoor pastimes VS Indoor pastimes
(a) What do you mean by outdoor pastimes?
(b) What do you mean by indoor pastimes?
(c) What types of outdoor and ind0or pastimes do people perform?
(d) What are the benefits of outdoor and indoor pastimes?
Pastime contributes remarkably to the formation and development of everybody’s personality. It feeds our soul. Pastime is of two types-outdoor and indoor. The type and nature of pastimes depend on the age and taste of a person. Especially young and adolescent people enjoy climbing trees, playing conkers, daisy chains, making dens, and feeding birds as outdoor pastimes. Little children especially girls enjoy playing puppets as indoor pastimes. Little boys enjoy playing with toys like motor cars, boats, origami, etc.
Young energetic and solvent people enjoy hiking, bird watching, sightseeing, visiting historical places, and meeting relatives. Aged people are usually fond of enjoying pastime at home. Of all popular indoor pastimes watching television, reading books and gossip are very common. In cities, there are some nice clean parks: During holidays people usually go to visit those parks in search of amusement, Of outdoor pastime bird watching is now becoming popular. Real enthusiasts go even to the remote areas to see their feathered friends. As life is getting mechanical day by day, people intend to shake off their suffocation and pass some moments out of the din and bustle of everyday life. So pastimes both outdoor and indoor, are becoming an inevitable part of our daily life.
Word meaning: contribute (v)-অবদান রাখা, দান করা; formation (n)-গঠন, রূপ; personality (n)-ব্যক্তিত্ত্ব; taste (n)-রুচি বা পছন্দ; adolescent (n)-উঠতি বয়সের লােকজন; energetic (adj) উদ্যমী; solvent(adj.)- স্বচ্ছল; gossipping (n)-গাল-গল্প; amusement (n)- আনন্দ; enthusiast (n)- আগ্রহী ব্যক্তি; intend
(v)-কিছু করতে আগ্রহ প্রকাশ করা; din and bustle (n)- হৈহুল্লোড় বা কোলাহল পূর্ণ জীবন; suffocation (n)-শ্বাসরােধ করার মত অবস্থা; inevitable (n)- অবিচ্ছেদ্য।